Inventors: Atlas Eran M.Sc., Nimri Revital MD, Miller Shahar B.Sc., Grunberg Eli A. B.Sc., Moshe Phillip MD, The Jesse Z. , Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, caused when the body’s immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas and destroys them. It accounts for about 10 percent of diagnosed diabetes, or approximately 30 million patients worldwide, and develops most often in children and young adults. The disease is incurable and associated with long-term complications that might lead to blindness, heart and blood vessel disease, stroke, kidney failure, amputation, and nerve damage. Glucose control is the primary factor in avoiding the devastating complications of diabetes, as was shown in the results of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (The New England Journal of Medicine, 329(14):977-86, 1993). Medicine’s ultimate goal is to develop substitutes that will mimic the natural function of the healthy pancreas as closely as possible and help the patient to maintain good glucose control. Current treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes includes multiple daily injections and blood tests to assess carbohydrate intake and determine the amount of insulin that needed. In recent years, insulin pumps and sensors have been introduced to treat and monitor diabetes patients. The insulin pump offers the most appropriate means of insulin delivery because it simulates the normal pattern of insulin secretion. In order for pump therapy to succeed, it is essential to reset pump settings from time to time, adjusting parameters such as the insulin correction factor, carbohydrate ratio, basal plan and insulin activity time, in order to optimize and improve glucose control. Sensors are inserted into the patient’s subcutaneous tissue; allow continuous measurements of the glucose levels and alert patients when these reach dangerously high or low levels. However, these technologies alone do not free patients from dealing with their diabetes.
The availability of accurate continuous glucose sensors and infusion pumps provided an opportunity to develop an automatic artificial pancreas that uses input data from the sensor, analyzes it, and commands the insulin pump to deliver the correct dose of insulin at the right time. Artificial pancreas systems mimic the activity of the normal pancreas and strictly control the patient’s blood glucose levels, freeing the patient from the daily burden of dealing with their diabetes. The missing piece of this system is the software that connects the glucose sensor and the insulin pump. Major efforts to mimic the pancreas through control algorithms have not so far evolved into a product. The MD-Logic Artificial Pancreas system administers insulin according to glucose readings in a fully automated manner. The system’s unique design transforms common medical knowledge and traditional diabetes treatment into an automatic system. This includes applying the principles of fuzzy logic theory and using a sophisticated algorithm to allow individualized treatment. The MD-Logic Artificial Pancreas system can be connected to any insulin pump and continuous glucose sensor currently available. The system has a unique remote diabetes management system which enables caregivers to supervise the glucose levels and insulin dosage of multiple patients using a simple Internet connection.